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CS 2113 Software Engineering - Spring 2021 | CS 2113 Software Engineering.
Preliminaries
Github Classroom Link:
Development Environment
Note that this lab cannot be completed on Mac because valgrind is not available in that environment. Instead,
you should either use Ubuntu/WSL.
This assignment does work on replit.
Compiling your programs with gcc and make
We have provided you with a Makefile to ease the compilation burden for this lab. To compile a given executable,
simply type make .
make
Before submitting, you should clean your src directory by typing:
make clean
which will remove any lingering executables and other undesirable files. In a later lab, we will review make files for
compilation.
Testing your lab
To help you test your lab, we have provided a test script in the top level of your lab directory:
./test.sh
Part 1: Debugging Memory Errors with Valgrind (30
points)
In this lab, you will be required to dynamically allocate memory in multiple context, and you are also required to
ensure that your program does not have memory leaks or memory violations. Fortunately for you, there exists a
wonderful debugging program which can capture and help you debug both, Valgrind.
Memory Leaks
CS2113SoftwareEngineering-Spring2021
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A memory leak occurs when you have dynamically allocated memory, using malloc() or calloc() that you do
not free properly. As a result, this memory is lost and can never be freed, and thus a memory leak occurs. It is vital
that memory leaks are plugged because they can cause system wide performance issues as one program begins
to hog all the memory, affecting access to the resources for other programs.
To understand a memory leak, letʼs look at perhaps the most offensive memory leaking program ever written:
#include
#include
#include
#include
int main(){
while(1){
malloc(1024); //memory leak!
sleep(0.5); //slow down the leak
}
}
At the malloc() , new memory is allocated, but it is never assigned to a pointer. Thus there is no way to keep
track of the memory and no way to deallocate it, thus we have a memory leak. This program is even more terrible in
that it loops forever leaking memory. If run, it will eventually slow down and cripple your computer. DONʼT RUN
THIS PROGRAM WITHOUT CAREFUL SUPERVISION.
Normally, memory leaks are less offensive. Letʼs look at a more common memory leak.
/*memleak_example.c*/
#include
#include
int main(int argc, char * argv[]){
int * a = malloc(sizeof(int *));
*a = 10;
printf("%d\n", *a);
a = calloc(3, sizeof(int *));
a[0] = 10;
a[1] = 20;
a[2] = 30;
printf("%d %d %d\n", a[0], a[1], a[2]);
}
This is a simple program that uses an integer pointer a in two allocations. First, it allocates a single integer and
assigns the value 10 to the allocated memory. Next, it uses a to reference an array of integers of length 3. It
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prints out the values for both cases. Here is some program output and compilation. (The -g is to compile with
debugging information, which will become important later.)
#> gcc memleak_example.c -g -o memleak_example
#> ./memleak_example
10
10 20 30
On itʼs face, there doesnʼt seem to be anything wrong with this program in terms of its intended output. It compiles
without errors, and it runs as intended. Yet, this program is wrong, and there is a memory leak in it.
Upon the second allocation and assignment to a , the previous allocation is not freed. The assignment of the
second allocation from calloc() will overwrite the previous pointer value, which use to reference the initial
allocation, the one by malloc() . As a result, the previous pointer value and the memory it referenced is lost and
cannot be freed; a classic memory leak.
Ok, so we know what a memory leak is and how to recognize one by reading code, but thatʼs hard. Why canʼt the
compiler or something figure this out for us? Turns out that this is not something that a compiler can easily check
for. The only foolproof way to determine if a program has a memory leak is to run it and see what happens.
The valgrind debugger is exactly the tool designed to that. It will run your program and track the memory
allocations and checks at the end if all allocated memory has been freed. If not, some memory was lost, then it will
generate a warning. Letʼs look at the valgrind output of running the above program.
#> valgrind ./memleak_example
==30134== Memcheck, a memory error detector
==30134== Copyright (C) 2002-2011, and GNU GPL'd, by Julian Seward et al.
==30134== Using Valgrind-3.7.0 and LibVEX; rerun with -h for copyright info
==30134== Command: ./memleak_example
==30134==
10
10 20 30
==30134==
==30134== HEAP SUMMARY:
==30134== in use at exit: 16 bytes in 2 blocks
==30134== total heap usage: 2 allocs, 0 frees, 16 bytes allocated
==30134==
==30134== LEAK SUMMARY:
==30134== definitely lost: 16 bytes in 2 blocks
==30134== indirectly lost: 0 bytes in 0 blocks
==30134== possibly lost: 0 bytes in 0 blocks
==30134== still reachable: 0 bytes in 0 blocks
==30134== suppressed: 0 bytes in 0 blocks
==30134== Rerun with --leak-check=full to see details of leaked memory
==30134==
==30134== For counts of detected and suppressed errors, rerun with: -v
==30134== ERROR SUMMARY: 0 errors from 0 contexts (suppressed: 2 from 2)
Check out the LEAK SUMMARY section, and you find that 16 bytes were “definitely” lost. Letʼs rerun the valgrind
with the --leak-check option set to “full” to see more details, which additonally prints the HEAP SUMMARY
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#> valgrind --leak-check=full ./memleak_example
(...)
==30148== 4 bytes in 1 blocks are definitely lost in loss record 1 of 2
==30148== at 0x4C2B6CD: malloc (in /usr/lib/valgrind/vgpreload_memcheck-amd64-linux.so)
==30148== by 0x4005F7: main (memleak_example.c:6)
==30148==
==30148== 12 bytes in 1 blocks are definitely lost in loss record 2 of 2
==30148== at 0x4C29DB4: calloc (in /usr/lib/valgrind/vgpreload_memcheck-amd64-linux.so)
==30148== by 0x400636: main (memleak_example.c:12)
It lists the two allocatoins. The first call to malloc() allocated 4 bytes, the size of an integer. The second
allocation, allocated 3 integers, or 12-bytes, with calloc() . With this information, the programmer can track
down the memory leak and fix it, which is exactly what youʼll do for this task.
Task 1 (15 points)
Change into the valgrind directory in your lab folder. Compile and execute memleak.c . Verify the output
and try and understand the program.
Answer the following questions in your worksheet:
.
Run valgrind on the memleak program, how many bytes does it say have been definitely lost?
.
What line does valgrind indicate the memory leak has occurred?
.
Describe the memory leak.
.
Try and fix the memory leak and verify your fix with valgrind. Describe how you fixed the memory leak.
You will submit your fixed memleak.c program in your submission, and we will verify that you fixed the
memory leak.
Memory Violations
Memory leaks are not just the only kind of memory errors that valgrind can detect, it can also detect memory
violations. A memory violation is when you access memory that you shouldnʼt or access memory prior to it being
initialized.
Letʼs look at really simple example of this, printing an uninitialized value.
int a;
printf("%d\n", a);
The problem with this program is clear; weʼre printing out the value of a without having previously assigned to it.
This error can be detected by the compiler with the -Wall option:
#> gcc -Wall memviolation_simple.c
memviolation_simple.c:7:18: warning: variable 'a' is uninitialized when used here [-Wuninitialized]
printf("%d\n", a);
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But other memory violations are harder to recognize particular those involving arrays. Letʼs look at the program
below. You should be able to spot the error.
#include
#include
int main(int argc, char * argv[]){
int i, *a;
a = calloc(10, sizeof(int));
for(i=0;i <= 10; i++){
a[i] = i;
}
for(i=0;i <= 10; i++){
printf("%d\n", a[i]);
}
}
However, if we were to compile and just run this program, you may not recognize that anything is wrong:
#> ./memviolation_array
No errors are reported and the numbers up to 10 are printed, but we know that we are actually writing out-ofbounds
in our array, and we shouldnʼt do that! Valgrind, fortunately, can detect such errors:
#> valgrind ./memviolation_array
==30588== Memcheck, a memory error detector
==30588== Copyright (C) 2002-2011, and GNU GPL'd, by Julian Seward et al.
==30588== Using Valgrind-3.7.0 and LibVEX; rerun with -h for copyright info
==30588== Command: ./memviolation_array
==30588==
==30588== Invalid write of size 4
==30588== at 0x4005D8: main (in /home/scs/aviv/git/ic221/current/lab/04/stu/examples/memviolatio
==30588== Address 0x51f2068 is 0 bytes after a block of size 40 alloc'd
==30588== at 0x4C29DB4: calloc (in /usr/lib/valgrind/vgpreload_memcheck-amd64-linux.so)
==30588== by 0x4005B4: main (in /home/scs/aviv/git/ic221/current/lab/04/stu/examples/memviolatio
==30588==
0
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If you notice in the execution output, there is an “Invalid read of size 4” occurring when array[10] is indexed
and printed to the screen. This is a rather simple example, but invalid reads and writes and other kinds of memory
violations can cause all sorts of problems in your program, and they should be investigated and fixed when
possible.
Task 2 (15 points)
Change into the valgrind directory in your lab folder. Compile and execute the memviolation.c program.
Complete the following tasks and answer the questions in your worksheet.
.
Describe the output and exeuction of the program. Does it seem to be consistent?
.
Run the program under valgrind, identify the line of code that is causing the memory violation and its
input.
.
Debug the memory violation and describe the programming bug.
.
Fix the memory violation and verify your fix with valgrind.
Your submission will include the fixed memviolation.c program.
==30588== Invalid read of size 4
==30588== at 0x40060F: main (in /home/scs/aviv/git/ic221/current/lab/04/stu/examples/memviolatio
==30588== Address 0x51f2068 is 0 bytes after a block of size 40 alloc'd
==30588== at 0x4C29DB4: calloc (in /usr/lib/valgrind/vgpreload_memcheck-amd64-linux.so)
==30588== by 0x4005B4: main (in /home/scs/aviv/git/ic221/current/lab/04/stu/examples/memviolatio
==30588==
10
==30588==
==30588== HEAP SUMMARY:
==30588== in use at exit: 40 bytes in 1 blocks
==30588== total heap usage: 1 allocs, 0 frees, 40 bytes allocated
==30588==
==30588== LEAK SUMMARY:
==30588== definitely lost: 40 bytes in 1 blocks
==30588== indirectly lost: 0 bytes in 0 blocks
==30588== possibly lost: 0 bytes in 0 blocks
==30588== still reachable: 0 bytes in 0 blocks
==30588== suppressed: 0 bytes in 0 blocks
==30588== Rerun with --leak-check=full to see details of leaked memory
==30588==
==30588== For counts of detected and suppressed errors, rerun with: -v
==30588== ERROR SUMMARY: 2 errors from 2 contexts (suppressed: 2 from 2)
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Part 2: Implementing simplefs (70 points)
In this part of the lab you will program a simple filesystem structure based on linked lists. To help you debug and
test your file system, we have provided you with a shell interface for the file with three commands:
.
touch : create a file if it doesnʼt exist or update itʼs timestamp if it does
.
rm : remove a file by name
.
ls : list all the current files in the file system
The files will be managed using a linked list, so you must also be able to iterate through a link list, remove items
from the list, and add items to the end of the list. Below we outline some additional tools youʼll need to complete
the lab
The Filesystem Structures
The structures of the file system are described in the header file, filesystem.h :
/**
* Structure for a file
**/
struct file{
char * fname; //name of file
time_t last; //last modified
struct file * next_file;
};
//typedef to make it easier
typedef struct file file_t;
/**
* Structure for a diretory
**/
typedef struct{
file_t * flist; //pointer to first file_t in the linked list or the
//head of the list
int nfiles; //number of files currently stored
} dir_t;
The file_t structure represents a file and has three fields. The first is char * which references the string for
the name of the file. The second field stores a timestamp for the last time a file was touch ‘ed, and finally, the last
field is a pointer to the next file in the file list. Recall that files will be stored using a linked list, just as youʼve seen
before in prior classes.
The directory structure, dir_t , stores two values. The first is a pointer to the start of the file list, and the second
is an integer tracking the number of files in the file system.
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Linked List Review
A linked list a data structure by which nodes manage links to other nodes. For example, in the file system structure,
the linked list will look like so
.----------. .-----------. .-----------.
| dir_t | .->| file_t | .->| file_t | .-> NULL
| | | | next_file-+-' | next_file-+-'
| flist----+-' '-----------' '-----------'
| nfiles=2 |
'----------'
The dirt stores the head of the list, which references the first file. There are two files in the list, and the file
references NULL to indicate the end of the list. If a new item is appended to the list, then the last file will reference
it, and the newly appended file will reference NULL.
One edge condition that is important to consider is when the file list is empty, the directory will reference NULL and
nfiles should be 0.
.----------.
| dir_t | .-> NULL
| | |
| flist----+-'
| nfiles=0 |
'----------'
If you forget about this edge condition, you will SEGFAULT — 100% guaranteed.
Allocate a file and its filename with touch
While the starter code allocates the initial directory structure you will need to allocate the files using malloc() .
The function that will be your touch implementation, which has the prototype:
void simplefs_touch(dir_t * dir, char *fname);
It will pass in a pointer to the directory, which stores the head of the list of files. At this point, one of two things
could be true: the file with the name fname exists, in which case you will update itʼs timestamp (see next
section), or the file with the name fname does not exist, in which case you will need to create a new file with that
name.
To allocate a new file, use malloc() or calloc() like so:
file_t * new_file = malloc(sizeof(file_t));
which will allocate memory on the heap large enough to store a file_t . Next we need to set itʼs fields. First we
need to set the name of the file. You might be tempted to do this:
new_file->fname = fname;
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Where fname is the one passed to simplefs_touch , but thereʼs a problem here. That fname , the one passed
as an argument, may not persist. That is, it might not be allocated on the heap (in fact, it will not be). You need to
allocate space for the string and copy it over. To help, I recommend you look up the fuction strdup() from the
string library.
Timestamps and Time formats
One the new things in this lab is that you will be using timestamps. A timestamp in Unix is just a number, a long ,
that counts the number of seconds since the epoch, Jan 1st 1970. The files in your file system must store the last
modification time, the time since touch was last called.
To retrieve the current time, use the time() command:
file->last = time(NULL); //get the current time
Every time a file is touch ‘ed, you should update the timestamp for that file. To print the timestamp, which is a
number, in a human readable format, there is a nice library function, ctime() , which takes a pointer to a
timestamp and returns a string representation.
time_t ts = time(NULL); //get the current time
printf("%s\n", ctime(&ts)); //convert the current time
// ^
// '--- Don't forget to pass the address of the timestamp!
Removing a file from the list
One of the more challenging tasks in this lab will be implementing rm which requires you to iterate through the
list of files, identify the file to be remove based on its name, and then remove that file while maintaing the
consistency of the list. This will require careful pointer manipulation. For example consider this scenario below:
.-----------. .-----------. .-----------.
.-> | fname | .-> | fname | .-> | fname | .->
-' | next_file +---' | next_file +---' | next_file +---'
'-----------' '-----------' '-----------'
(deleting this file)
The file to be deleted is between two other files. In this case we must realign the pointer of the previous file to the
one being deleted to reference the file after the deleted file, like below:
.-----------------.
.-----------. | xXXXXXXXXXXXx | .-----------.
.-> | fname | | x ***** x '---> | fname | .->
-' | next_file +---' x ******** x | next_file +---'
'-----------' xXXXXXXXXXXXx '-----------'
(need to have
next_file point to the deleted files's next file)
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Deallocation and Memory Leaks
As you work through this lab, be sure to keep track of all the components that you allocated on the heap. You must
deallocate them properly. To simplify this process, the code is organized such that there is a single function for
freeing all the memory:
void simplefs_rmfile(file_t *file){
//TODO: Complete file dealocation
// (note this is called by simplefs_rmdir() to deallocate individual files)
}
This function is called by simplefs_rmdir() , and should be one of the first things you implement. Use valgrind
to check your memory violations.
Requirements:
You must complete all the functions left remaining in the filesystem.c source code, which includes:
simplefs_touch()
simplefs_rm()
simplfs_rmfile()
Your program must integrate with the shell program for testing purposes. The shell program has the
following commands:
ls : list files
rm name : remove file of the name
touch name : create a file called name if it doesnʼt exist or update the timestamp if it does
Do not edit the shell program, it is provided for you, but you will interact with your file system
implementation through it.
Your program must not have any memory leaks or violations.
Use the make command to do your compilation because this is somewhat complicated program.
(EXTRA CREDIT: 5 points) Complete two additional functions in filesystem.c to list the files in
different sorted order:
simplefs_ls_sorttime() : list file sorted by oldest to newest
simplefs_ls_sortname() : sort files alphabetically by name
Sample Output:
aviv@saddleback: simplefs $ make
gcc -Wall -g -c -o filesystem.o filesystem.c
gcc -Wall -g -c -o shell.o shell.c
gcc -o shell shell.o filesystem.o -lreadline -lncurses
aviv@saddleback: simplefs $ ./shell
simplefs > ls
simplefs > touch a b c
simplefs > ls
a Mon Feb 2 18:09:13 2015
b Mon Feb 2 18:09:13 2015
c Mon Feb 2 18:09:13 2015
simplefs > touch b
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simplefs > ls
a Mon Feb 2 18:09:13 2015
b Mon Feb 2 18:09:20 2015
c Mon Feb 2 18:09:13 2015
simplefs > touch c
simplefs > ls
a Mon Feb 2 18:09:13 2015
b Mon Feb 2 18:09:20 2015
c Mon Feb 2 18:09:22 2015
simplefs > touch d
simplefs > ls
a Mon Feb 2 18:09:13 2015
b Mon Feb 2 18:09:20 2015
c Mon Feb 2 18:09:22 2015
d Mon Feb 2 18:09:26 2015
simplefs > rm c
simplefs > ls
a Mon Feb 2 18:09:13 2015
b Mon Feb 2 18:09:20 2015
d Mon Feb 2 18:09:26 2015
simplefs > touch go navy
simplefs > ls
a Mon Feb 2 18:09:13 2015
b Mon Feb 2 18:09:20 2015
d Mon Feb 2 18:09:26 2015
go Mon Feb 2 18:09:32 2015
navy Mon Feb 2 18:09:32 2015
simplefs > rm a b d
simplefs > ls
go Mon Feb 2 18:09:32 2015
navy Mon Feb 2 18:09:32 2015
simplefs > touch a b d
simplefs > ls
go Mon Feb 2 18:09:32 2015
navy Mon Feb 2 18:09:32 2015
a Mon Feb 2 18:09:43 2015
b Mon Feb 2 18:09:43 2015
d Mon Feb 2 18:09:43 2015
simplefs >
CS 2113 Software Engineering -
Spring 2021
(c) Adam J. Aviv (2021)
aaviv@gwu.edu
Computer Science
The George Washington University

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